the Church of England adopted in Australia and some other countries. The
Church of Englandis the established church in England. It remained
under papal authority until the reign of Henry VIII during which the
English Church separated from the Roman Catholic Church and the English
sovereign became the Supreme Head of the Church of England.
Autocephalic Orthodox Church
A sect of the non-canonical Orthodox Church, one of the churches not
recognised by the Eastern Orthodoxy’s Ecumenical Patriarch. In Victoria
they are represented by the Macedonian, Free Serbian and Ukrainian
Protestant denomination which refuses to baptise until the person is old
enough to consciously accept the Christian faith. The General Baptist
movement, which ascribes to the belief that Christ died for everyone, was
founded in 1612 by John Smyth and Thomas Helwys. In contrast, the
Particular Baptist movement, founded in 1633, was Calvinist and believed
Christ died for the elect and that salvation was only for a particular
established church in Scotland. It separated from Rome in 1560, primarily
due to the influence of John Knox, the founder of Presbyterianism. It
became the established church in 1696.
Christian denomination in which each congregation is democratically
self-governing and there is no central authority. Dating from the
Reformation, Congregationalists were known as Independents in England.
religious movement founded in 1872 by Charles Taze Russell in Philadelphia
and based on Scriptural teaching. Jehovah’s Witnesses reject Christ’s
divinity although he is considered to be God’s prophet. Members believe
that only the elect will have salvation.
religion of the Jewish people. In Orthodox Judaism the Torah, Judaism’s
most sacred text, is the ultimate authority. Liberal Judaism aims to
reconcile modern life with the fundamental precepts of Judaism. Temple
Beth Israel, founded by Ada Phillips in 1930, was the first permanent
Liberal congregation in Melbourne. The sexes are not segregated, as in
Orthodox services, and observance of rituals and dietary rules are left to
John Wesley preached sermons throughout Britain but the Wesleyan Methodist
Church was not organised until after his death, during the 1790s. The
Conference is the supreme decision-maker and evangelical work is
A Protestant church which originated in the sixteenth century and was
organised by followers of Calvin. Its organisation is based on government
by elders. The Free Church of Scotland was a sect that broke with the
Church of Scotland in the 1840s in protest at the perceived encroachment
of the state on the church. The Presbyterian Church of Victoria was formed
in 1859 and united most of the Presbyterian sects in Victoria. The Free
Church continued, however, and in 1913 joined other Free Presbyterians to
form the Free Presbyterian Church of Australia.
Since 1971 the Catholic Church has been the largest denomination in
Victoria. It acknowledges the Pope as the head of the Church and was the
spiritual authority in Western Europe until the advent in the early
sixteenth century of the Protestant movement which highlighted the need
William Booth in London in 1865. It is organised on military lines and
members wear a distinctive uniform. It is renowned for its social work.
An amalgamation of some Presbyterian, Methodist and Congregational
churches which came about in 1977.
brief glossary is based on Lewis, Victorian Churches, Glossary,
pp. 158-61; and Richard Peterson, Brimstone to Bunyip: Churches of
Collingwood, Clifton Hill and Abbotsford 1852-1999, Collingwood
Historical Society, 1999,Glossary, pp. 76-82.